Firewood is a wooden substance that is used for fuel purposes. In contrast to other forms of wood fuel like pellets, firewood is usually not heavily processed and in some sort of recognizable log or branch form. There are two types of firewood: seasoned and heat-treated (dry) and unseasoned (fresh/wet).

Firewood can be softwood and hardwood Softwood burns faster than hardwood, but hardwoods produce more heat. Seasoned firewood is preferred for heating because it burns more evenly and cleanly. Unseasoned firewood should not be used for heating because it tends to burn with excessive smoke and sparks. It should instead be used for kindling or outdoor campfires.


The resource of firewood is renewable. Demand for this fuel, however, can exceed its ability to regenerate locally or regionally. Local wood supplies can be improved by good forestry practices and improvements in firewood-using devices. Diseases and invasive species can be transported by moving firewood long distances.

What is the origin of firewood ? Firewood comes from hardwood trees mostly, The oak tree that is cut and broken for use as wood fuel. It takes months for ‘tree wood’ to dry out and enough to become ‘firewood’.

What is the history of Firewood?

Before the industrial revolution the firewood was the main fuel material until the use of coal was spreading.Wood is the structural and functional unit of roots and stems it is an organic ,natural material which is the combination of cellulose and fiber. As such, the approach to firewood was a valuable resource.

Not long ago in 19th century America, Thoreau examined that it was astonishing what a value is still put upon wood as it happened in this age and this country the prince and the peasant, the scholar, require still a few sticks from the forest to warm them and for cooking.

Harvesting, preparing ,storing and heating value of firewood

Collecting and harvesting of firewood varies from culture to culture . Standing dead timber reflects better still, it has less moisture and humid organic material on the trunk, empowering tools to stay sharper longer, moreover being both seasoned and less rotten.

Harvesting the form of timber eliminates the speed and intensity of forest fires, but it also reduces habitat for animals such as owls, bats, and some rodents which are also called snag-nesting animals.

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Harvesting is mostly carried out with hands by using chainsaws. Longer pieces needed less manual labor, and less chainsaw fuel . Due to the availability and durability of fire wood it is widely used in Nigeria and other Asians countries where the fuel like coal and gas (Natural compressed gas ) resources are limited. The excessive demand for firewood places massive pressure on forest resources, leading to deforestation .


The concentration of carbon dioxide would increase in the atmosphere which causes greenhouse effect and global warming.

After harvesting, splitting is mostly done with a hydraulic splitting machine ,steel wedge ,Italian style splitting Axe.

For continuing the drying process wood can be placed at cool and dry places and be aware of water.

  • Stacks pattern:

The simplest stack is where logs are arranged next to and on top of each other in sequence , forming a line according to the line and the width of the logs. The height of the stack can vary, usually depending upon how the ends are constructed and maintained . Without constructing and maintaining ends, the length of the log and length of the mass help determine the height of a detached stack.

  • Storing Under a roof:

Under a roof shade , there are no concerns about the wood being exposed to rain, snow or run-off, but proper ventilation needs to be provided if the wood is stored green so that moisture is released from the wood and make it ready to use.

  • Storing Firewood outdoors:

Firewood should be stacked with the bark facing upwards from the sun. This allows the water to drain off easily and standing frost, snow to be kept away from the wood. Storing wood near an accommodation increases the likelihood that insects such as termites and wood ants can become established indoors.

What are the uses of firewood?

Here we discuss some of the uses of firewood:

Household cooking:

Fuel wood serves as a main important source of energy for cooking in many households and commercial outlets. It is used in traditional stoves or open fires to grill and to prepare meals. . Many people pay one dollar per day to use firewood for cooking.

Heating the rooms during cold:

In colder regions firewood is used for heating purposes. It provides warmth like heaters in homes and can be used in fireplaces .


Used in Small-scale industries and Artisanal activities:

Firewood is often utilized by small-scale industry units for various production processes. Examples include baking and roasting ,food processing, pottery brick-making etc. Firewood is used for artisanal activities like carving, woodworking like household furniture , and crafting traditional items.

Used for Charcoal production:

Cooking, heating, vehicles, and industrial processes use charcoal produced from firewood derived from carbonizing wood.

For Cultural and religious practices:

The use of fuel wood is a part of cultural and religious practices in many countries. Traditionally, it is used for religious ceremonies and rituals involving fire. During night parties, students also use it to roast meals and light bonfires.


What are key points we should value before considering Firewood?

Check moisture content:

How firewood burns and how much heat it releases depends on its moisture content. The moisture content of unseasoned wood (green wood) varies by species; green wood may weigh 70 to 100 percent more than seasoned wood. It is common for seasoned (dry) wood to have a moisture content of 20% or less.


When it comes to firewood, what is the best quality?

For instance many types of hardwood best for burning like oak ,birch , Alm and beech trees that easily burn produce less ash and smoke moreover easily dry out take less time .

How many types of wood ! That can be used as firewood?

There are three types of firewood that make all the differences of your quality of fire, like” seasoned “which naturally split and typically contains the moisture content of 40% second is” green” with uniform wood color and heavy in weight also intact bark with almost 50% of moisture locked.

And last one is Kiln dried firewood. It takes off green but put in a kiln for 72 hours until the moisture content is left below 25 % at the degree of 160-200 degree Celsius . Kiln firewood is clean and properly dried out with no fungus and mold and typically light in color.


Firewood is of three kinds Kiln firewood is the best choice for fireplaces and wood stoves. It is also the preferred choice for outdoor fires, as it is less likely to spark and cause a fire.

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